A privacy organisation filed two complaints against Apple in Europe, accusing the company of circumventing European Union (EU) law by tracking iPhone users’ behaviour for advertising purposes without consent.

The complaints, filed by NOYB – European Center for Digital Rights with data protection authorities in Germany and Spain, claim the Apple Identifier for Advertisers (IFDA) tool breached EU laws by effectively operating as a tracking cookie.

NOYB stated the tool enables any app installed on an iPhone to “track a user and combine information about online and mobile behaviour”, which current EU laws require permission from users.

The privacy group claims Apple breached this requirement by placing “these tracking codes without the knowledge or agreement of the users”.

Apple and third parties could access details on users’ behaviour, and “elaborate consumption preferences and provide personalised advertising”, the complainant said.

NOYB requested an investigation into the claims, asking the data privacy bodies to fine Apple and order it to remove the tracking tools from its devices, alongside providing future measures to correct the infringement.

The group said it was also reviewing a similar monitoring practice by Google.