Google remained on the hook for a more than €4 billion ($4 billion) penalty imposed by the European Commission (EC) over the dominance of its Android platform after failing in a bid to have the fine annulled.

In a ruling published today (14 September), the European General Court ruled the EC was right to find Google abused its dominant position, though marginally reduced the fine issued from €4.3 billion to €4.1 billion.

The court’s review “largely confirms” the EC conclusion “Google imposed unlawful restrictions on manufacturers of Android mobile devices” and network operators “to consolidate the dominant position of its search engine”.

Google has two months and ten days to launch an appeal against the decision with the European Court of Justice.

The EC’s original action followed a three-year investigation into Google’s requirement for device makers to include its apps on devices.

Google has so far failed to annul two of three EC fines totalling more than €8 billion.

The search giant also appealed a €1.5 billion fine levied by the EC in 2019 for blocking adverts from rivals including Yahoo and Microsoft.

Google faces several probes and fines across the world, with Australian authorities last month imposing an AUD60 million ($40.3 million) penalty over location data.

In July, Russia issued a RUB21.1 billion ($353.2 million) fine over a failure to remove content deemed illegal.

Google also agreed to establish a $90 million fund as part of a proposed settlement to a legal spat with US Android app developers over their earnings.

And in early 2021, Google agreed to pay a €220 million fine and amend its practices to settle an investigation by France’s competition authority.